“Long before any knowledge of electricity existed people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BC referred to these fish as the “Thunderer of the Nile”, and described them as the “protectors” of all other fish. They were again reported millennia later by ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and torpedo rays, and knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them. Possibly the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, and electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning (raad) applied to the electric ray.”
– Wikipedia, Electricity
“Paar said, among other things, that as early as in 1891 Tesla had published first the article on electron, a discovery Thompson was recognized for by the Nobel Prize in 1897. “Also, Tesla discovered X-rays in 1894, and a year later the Nobel Prize for that discovery was given to Roentgen, what was the first ‘Nobel’ for physics. Tesla gave evidence on existing the cosmic rays as early as in 1897 Tesla had discovered the working principle of radar in 1903, more than three decades before it was discovered”, said Paar adding that Tesla gave evidence on existing the cosmic rays as early as in 1897. These rays were experimentally discovered in 1912. He mentioned that there were documents which could prove that as early as in 1893, or almost six decades before laser construction, Tesla had had an apparatus similar to laser.”
– For Tesla’s unrecognized discoveries awarded ten Nobel Prizes
‘The fact that the rich, Western industrialized nations have at least begun looking at environmentally compatible construction suggests that there is a relationship between affluence and an environmental conscience. But this relationship does not apply in the suddenly prosperous East, where building has been and remains a matter of — often eccentric — taste, rather than sustainability. Everything emits an aura of waste, the costly chic of excessive scale.
Like Jürgen Engel, his Stuttgart colleague Alexander Rieck believes that a corresponding shift is taking place, and that the quality debate will begin after the “big market reassessment.” According to Rieck, “the signs of the times are clear, and the environment is becoming increasingly important worldwide.”‘
- SPIEGEL Staff, Global Downturn Dooms Prestige Construction Projects, 01/15/2009