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‘…to go beyond mathematical equations…’

…traditional mathematical models have never seemed to come even close to capturing the kind of complexity we see in biology.
– Stephen Wolfram, A New Kind of Science, (page 9)

Plasma, the fourth state of matter behaves organicly (biology!). We live in an electrical organic plasma universe.

Physicists have created blobs of gaseous plasma that can grow, replicate and communicate - fulfilling most of the traditional requirements for biological cells. Without inherited material they cannot be described as alive, but the researchers believe these curious spheres may offer a radical new explanation for how life began.

Most biologists think living cells arose out of a complex and lengthy evolution of chemicals that took millions of years, beginning with simple molecules through amino acids, primitive proteins and finally forming an organised structure. But if Mircea Sanduloviciu and his colleagues at Cuza University in Romania are right, the theory may have to be completely revised. They say cell-like self-organisation can occur in a few microseconds.
Plasma blobs hint at new form of life, 17 September 03

The traditional sciences have hindered our quest for improving our lot. It’s a human endeavour, a human enterprise, it’s the human estimate and human action which is able to transform our surroundings to better our world.

In traditional science the notion of constraints is often introduced in an attempt to summarize the effects of evolution rules. Typically the idea is that after a sufficiently long time a system should be found only in states that are invariant under the application of its evolution rules. And quite often it turns out that one can show that any states that are invariant in this way must satisfy fairly simple constraints. But the problem is that except in cases where the behavior as a whole is very simple it tends not to be true that systems in fact evolve to strictly invariant states. (page 348)

One can look at all sorts of other physical systems, but so far as I can tell the story is always more or less the same: whenever there is behavior of significant complexity its most plausible explanation tends to be some explicit process of evolution, not the implicit satisfaction of constraints. (page 351)

And indeed it is one of the central ideas of this book to go beyond mathematical equations, and to consider models that are based on programs which can effectively involve rules of any kind. (page 368)”
– Stephen Wolfram, A New Kind of Science, 2002

Joram